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References Baum‐Haley, Melissa. Landscape Irrigation Best Management Practices. Irrigation Association and American Society of Irrigation Consultants. 2014. BMPs/IA/Advocacy/Landscape-Irrigation-BMPs.aspx Cook, Phillip J., Peter J. Landschoot, and Maxim J. Schloss. “Inhibition of Pythium spp. and Suppression of Pythium Blight of Turfgrasses with Phosphonate Fungicides.” Plant Disease. 93.8 (2009): 809-814. Day, Eric. Native and Solitary Bees in Virginia. Virginia Cooperative Extension. 2015. Duncan, Ron R., Robert N. Carrow, and Mike Huck. “Understanding Water Quality and Guidelines to Management.” United States Golf Association Green Section Record. 38.5 (2000): 14-24. Ervin, Erik and Adam Nichols. “Organic Matter Dilution Programs for Sand-based Putting […]


Acronyms AAPFCO Association of American Plant Food Control Officials AST above-ground storage tank BMP best management practice C carbon Ca calcium CEC cation exchange capacity Cl chlorine CRN controlled release nitrogen Cu copper CWA Clean Water Act DCR Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation DEQ Virginia Department of Environmental Quality DO dissolved oxygen DU distribution uniformity EC electrical conductivity EE enhanced efficiency EIFG Environmental Institute for Golf EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency ET evapotranspiration Fe iron FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency FIFRA Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act FRAC Fungicide Resistance Action Committee GCSAA Golf Course Superintendents Association of […]

Who We Are

Who We Are Golf Course Superintendents Association of America The Golf Course Superintendents Association of America (GCSAA) is the professional association for the men and women who manage and maintain the game’s most valuable resource–the golf course. Today, GCSAA and its members are recognized by the golf industry as one of the key contributors in elevating the game and business to its current state. Since 1926, GCSAA has been the top professional association for the men and women who manage golf courses in the United States and worldwide. From its headquarters in Lawrence, Kansas, the association provides education, information, and […]

12 Energy

12 Energy The use of energy for all activities in society is of great interest worldwide. Golf courses use a variety of energy sources, primarily electricity, gasoline, diesel, natural gas, propane, and heating oil. Renewable sources, such as solar, wind, and geothermal, are being considered and used by more small business as the return on investment increases. These newer technologies offer opportunities to reduce dependencies on fossil fuels and to decrease our carbon footprint. To establish effective energy BMPs, the facility’s existing energy consumption should be evaluated, and improvements should be achieved through energy reduction, conservation, and new technologies. Energy […]

11 Landscape Design and Management

11 Landscape Design and Management The fundamental principle for the environmentally sound management of landscapes is “choose the right plant, in the right place.” Ideal landscape plants are native and adapted specifically to the soil, degree and direction of slopes, precipitation type and amounts, wind direction and speed, light patterns, and microclimate. Susceptibility to major damage by insects and other pests is another selection criterion, as are the nutrient levels of the area. Because native and/or adapted plants can mimic natural ecosystems, their use in the landscape can reduce overall management inputs, attract pollinators, provide multi-season interest, and enhance out-of-play […]

10 Maintenance Operations

10 Maintenance Operations It is the objective to manage the potential environmental risks associated with golf course maintenance operations. Our industry has a need and responsibility to implement, manage, measure, and improve all aspects of environmental stewardship. It is imperative that hazardous materials be handled, stored, recycled, and disposed in a safe, healthy, and environmentally sound manner. Pollution prevention includes the proper delivery, storage, handling, and disposal of all chemicals, washwater, and wastewater. For example, washwater from pesticide application equipment must be managed as a pesticide. Conversely, wastewater not contaminated with harmful chemicals can be reused or discharged to a […]

9 Pollinator Protection

9 Pollinator Protection Pollination is an essential need for seed-bearing plants. Of the 1,400 crop plants grown around the world, almost 80% require pollination by invertebrates or animals. Pollinating visits from bees and other insects, birds, bats, etc., are a critical component of a stable food supply. In the United States alone, pollination of agricultural crops is valued at billions of dollars annually. Many pollinator species have experienced significant population declines over the last several decades. While a number of factors have contributed to this decline, the most critical may be habitat loss, largely from large scale agricultural operations and […]

8 Pesticide Management

8 Pesticide Management Pesticide use should be part of an overall pest management strategy that includes biological controls, cultural methods, pest monitoring, and other applicable practices. When a pesticide application is deemed necessary, its selection should be based on effectiveness, toxicity to non-target species, cost, site characteristics, and its solubility and persistence in the environment. Storage and handling of pesticides in their concentrated form poses the highest potential risk to groundwater and surface water. For this reason, it is essential that facilities for storing and handling pesticides be properly sited, designed, constructed, and operated in accordance with federal and state […]

7 Integrated Pest Management

7 Integrated Pest Management When turfgrasses face stresses such as the heat and drought found in Virginia’s transition zone climate, pests can become a problem. Pesticides alone will not control pests; a more effective approach is to develop an IPM program to reduce pest damage and reliance on pesticides. The EPA defines IPM as “an effective and environmentally sensitive approach to pest management that relies on a combination of common-sense practices.” The primary objective of an IPM program is to reduce the total pesticide load on the golf course by using a combination of tactics to control or manage pests. […]

6 Cultural Practices

6 Cultural Practices Golf cultural practices, which include mowing, cultivation practices, and overseeding, maintain a turfgrass system (i.e. putting greens, tees, fairways, or roughs) for the desired use or function. For example, mowing creeping bentgrass and ultra-dwarf bermudagrass putting greens to a low height of cut (HOC) with well-adjusted and sharp blades – in addition to proper implementation of cultivation practices such as aerification and topdressing – maintains a uniform surface over time for smooth ball roll. In addition to the playability benefits of implementing cultural practices BMPs, these practices help to avoid sediment and nutrient runoff by maintaining the […]